By R.D. Begamudre
The issues encountered with such excessive voltage transmission strains uncovered to nature are electrostatic fields close to the traces, audible noise, radio interference, corona losses, service and television interference, excessive voltage gradients, heavy bundled conductors, keep watch over of voltages at strength frequency utilizing shunt reactors of the switched sort which inject harmonics into the method, switched capacitors, over voltages as a result of lightning and switching operations, lengthy air gaps with vulnerable insulating homes for switching surges, ground-return results, and plenty of extra. the real subject of EHV cable transmission as much as 1200 kV is gaining flooring with oil-filled, PPLP, XLPE, and SF6 insulation. The ebook covers all subject matters which are thought of crucial for realizing the operation and layout of EHV ac overhead traces and Underground cables. Theoretical analyses of all difficulties mixed with useful program are offered intimately. EHV laboratory apparatus and trying out are totally coated including software of electronic recorders, fibre optics, and so on. for impulse measurements. each bankruptcy comprises many labored examples in an effort to illustrate and strengthen the speculation. All examples are taken from sensible occasions so far as attainable.
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Dwight: Mathematical Tables (Dover Publications) pages 194 onwards]. The following example will illustrate the increase in resistance of a round copper conductor up to a frequency of 100 kHz. 3. 7 mm) in dia. 7 × 10-8 ohm-m at 20°C. Calculate the variation of Rac/Rdc as a function of frequency up to 105 Hz. Solution. 0137. S. Tables and T. and D. Reference Book (Westinghouse)]. 9) Each of these four terms depends upon several factors which must be written out in terms of temperature, conductor dimensions, wind velocity, atmospheric pressure, current, resistance, conductor surface condition, etc.
At an ambient of 48°C, even the solar irradiation is sufficient to raise the temperature to 65°C for 400 kV line, so that no current can be carried. If there is improvement in material and the maximum temperature raised to 75°C, it is estimated that a current of 600 amperes can be transmitted for the same ambient temperature of 48°C. (3) The conductor resistance affects the attenuation of travelling waves due to lightning and switching operations, as well as radio-frequency energy generated by corona.
5. 3, work out dc alternative for India to evacuate these powers to load centres. 6. Write brief descriptions of (a) aeolian vibration, and (b) wake-induced oscillations. Describe the measures taken to minimize the damage due to them. v. transmission lines are always stranded. Most common conductors use a steel core for reinforcement of the strength of aluminium, but recently high tensile strength aluminium is being increasingly used, replacing the steel. The former is known as ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced) and the latter ACAR (Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced).