By S. David Hu

This e-book is written for software program engineers, software program venture leaders, and software program managers who want to introduce a brand new complicated software program know-how, professional structures, into their product. professional method expertise brings into programming a brand new measurement within which "rule of thumb" or heuristic specialist wisdom is encoded within the application. unlike traditional procedural languages {e. g. , Fortran or C}, specialist platforms hire high-level programming languages {Le. , professional method shells} that permit us to catch the judgmental wisdom of specialists similar to geologists, medical professionals, legal professionals, bankers, or assurance underwriters. previous professional structures were extra effectively utilized within the troublesome areas of research and synthesis the place the boundary of lo;nowledge is definitely outlined and the place specialists can be found and will be pointed out. Early profitable functions contain analysis platforms similar to MYCIN, geological structures equivalent to PROSPECTOR, or design/configu­ ration structures akin to XC ON. those early professional structures have been normally appropriate to medical and engineering difficulties, which aren't theoreti­ cally good understood by way of decisionmaking approaches by way of their specialists and which accordingly require judgmental review. The more moderen professional structures are being utilized to classy synthesis difficulties that contain a great number of offerings, comparable to how the weather are to be in comparison. those difficulties in most cases entailed a wide seek house and slower pace for the professional platforms designed. Examples of those platforms contain manufacturing unit scheduling purposes equivalent to ISIS, or felony reasoning purposes equivalent to TAXMAN.

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Let us discuss these individual areas. 46 Expert Systems for Software Engineers Table 3-4 Comparison of the Development Cycle Between Expert Systems and Conventional Software Programs Development process Program progress Program structure Program modification Program results Expert Systems Conventional Software Programs Incremental Stage-by-stage Expandable Easy Approximate answers One complete piece Structured development Fixed Expensive Exact answers Development Process The development process for an expert system is incremental over time: the functions of the system will increase proportionally with time (effort) expended on the expert system (Figure 3-2).

And Carbonell, J. G. " Tech. report CMU-CS-81-U8. Pittsburgh: Carnegie-Mellon University, Computer Science Department, May 1981. [U] McDermott, J. " In J. E. Hayes, D. Michie, and Y. H. , Machine Intelligence 10. Chichester, England: Horwood,1982, 325-337. [12] McDermott, J. " Artificial Intelligence 19, no. 1 (Sept. 1982). [13] Brodie Associates. Language Workbench, a programmer's tool kit for developing natural language interfaces to application softwares, Kurzweil AI. ), 1986. [14] Hendrix, G.

In expert system development, where a particular problem may never have been well defined before, an incremental strategy of rapid production of working prototype is used to reduce the risk of a total failure of the project. The concept of the system is first developed and tested, and a prototype is then chosen and improved upon before the developm:ent of a full-scale system is actually undertaken. ------ Specification Coding Testing Redesign Figure 3-2. Expert systems and conventional software program development phase: incremental versus implementational What Software Engineers and Managers Need to Know 47 through program requirement, specification, coding, testing, and redesign because the development of conventional programs is a relatively mature, pseudo-scientific, "water fall" process.

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