By R. F. Ewer (auth.)

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Reading to right across top row: increasing readiness to attack. Reading down left hand column: increasing submission. The other pictures show combinations of fear and aggression corresponding to their positions on the two axes. ) lt should be noted that the two tendencies activated in the cat and the dog arenot quite identical. The cat's expressions are a combination of attacking and defensive attitudes; those of the dog are better described as combining aggression and submission. These terms may need some explanation.

B) Intense anxiety: crouched close to the ground; tail over back with maximal piloerection. irrelevant incidentals to more important activities; many of them can be shown to constitute an important part of social communication behaviour. lt is no mere coincidence that dogs, whose wild relatives have a rieb and complex sociallife, should have a wide range of expressive movements, while bears, with a very meagre social existence should have very little facial expression, apart from a warning glint of the whites of the eyes when attack is imminent.

In dealing with small birds, the lie of the feathers plays the same role but here, 46 ETHOLOGY OF MAMMALS working "against the grain" may lead either to the. head, or to the base of the wing and, in fact, a cat may start to eat a bird at either the head or the wing base.

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