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HISTORY OF SPECIES PROTECTION Conservation has a long history. , when the Indian emperor Asoka (300–238? ) created nature reserves in Asia. Marco Polo (c. 1254–c. 1324) reported that the Asian ruler Kublai Khan (1215–1294) helped conserve bird and mammal species valued for hunting by banning hunting during their reproductive periods. He also helped increase their numbers by planting food and providing protected Endangered Species By the mid-nineteenth century many governments had developed an interest in wildlife conservation and an awareness of the need to protect natural habitats.

EMERGENCY LISTING. , following a natural disaster). Two designations are possible: endangered emergency listing (EmE) and threatened emergency listing (EmT). The listing must be published in the Federal Register and is effective for only 240 days. During this time the normal status review procedure continues. 4. Of the fortyseven delisted entities, twenty-one recovered, nine became extinct, and the remainder had procedural issues. The twelve recovered entities found in the United States are: • Marine mammal—gray whale (eastern north Pacific Ocean population) • Terrestrial mammals—grizzly bear (Yellowstone National Park DPS), Columbian white-tailed deer (Douglas County, Oregon DPS), gray wolf (Minnesota population and western Great Lakes DPS) • Birds—bald eagle, American peregrine falcon, Arctic peregrine falcon, Aleutian Canada goose, and brown pelican (Florida and Alabama populations) • Plants—Robbins’ cinquefoil (native to New Hampshire), Eggert’s sunflower (native to Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky), and Hoover’s woolly-star (native to California).

Principalis Hawaiian crow (or alala)—Corvus hawaiiensis Small Kauai thrush (puaiohi)—Phaeornia pulmeri Nihoa millerbird—Acrocephalus kingi Kauai oo (or oo aa)—Moho braccatus Crested honeycreeper (or akohekohe)—Palmeria dolei Akiapolaau—Hemignathus wilsoni Kauai akialoa—Hemignathus procerus Kauai nukupuu —Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe SOURCE: Laysan finchbill (Laysan Finch)—Psittirostra c. cantans Nihoa finchbill (Nihoa Finch)—Psittirostra cantans ultima Ou—Psittirostra psittacea Palila—Psittirostra bailleui Maui parrotbill—Pseudonestor xanthophyrys Bachman’s warbler—Vermivora bachmanii Kirtland’s warbler—Dendroica kirtlandii Dusky seaside sparrow—Ammospiza nigrescens Cape Sable sparrow—Ammospiza mirabilis Reptiles and Amphibians • • • • • • American alligator—Alligator mississippiensis Blunt-nosed leopard lizard—Crotaphytus wislizenii silus San Francisco garter snake—Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia Santa Cruz long-toed salamander—Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum Texas blind salamander—Typhlomolge rathbuni Black toad, Inyo County toad—Bufo exsul Fishes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Shortnose sturgeon—Acipenser brevirostrum Longjaw Cisco—Coregonus alpenae Paiute cutthroat trout—Salmo clarki seleniris Greenback cuttthroat trout—Salmo clarki stomias Montana Westslope cutthroat trout—Salmo clarki Gila trout—Salmo gilae Arizona (Apache) trout—Salmo sp.

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