By Y. Kanaori

On seventeenth January 1995 an inland earthquake of 7.2 value happened less than Kobe urban in vital Japan. greater than 5,500 humans misplaced their lives. there has been great and severe harm to structures. Researchers and engineers have been surprised and astonished via the level of the devastation and dying. flooring motions, generated through the development have been a long way more than the seismic usual for earthquake-proof designs in Japan. contemporary educational growth within the fields of geology and geophysics, which might aid to lessen the severity of seismic mess ups, has now not been sufficiently utilized to the improvement of earthquake-proof designs. This booklet comprises thirteen unique and cutting edge papers of interdisciplinary examine spanning earthquake-proof expertise and lively fault technology (seven of the papers disguise subject matters about the 1995 Kobe earthquake).

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Ratio of acceleration of earthquakes between the K-6 seismograph and another seismograph. (a) N-S direction, (b) E-W direction, (c) vertical direction. This figure includes 41 ground motions observed during the period from January 1991 to December 1994. 2. 1. Variationof water pressure Fig. 6 shows an example of the long-term variation of water pressure for KWP-1 during November 1991 to December 1994. Data obtained were averaged for every 128 measurements (approximately every 21-min interval). The water pressure for KWP-1 is consistently low in winter (November to February) while it tends to rise rapidly in spring (April to May).

Ground deformations around two left-stepping strike-slip fault segments forming the Coyote Creek fault system in California (Segall and Pollard, 1980). anticlinal dome 200 m in height, known as the Ocotillo Badlands. The length of the dome is about 10 km. (Sharp and Clark, 1972). Fig. 3 shows two fight-stepping strike-slip fault segments located near the town of Brawley, California. The two strike-slip fault segments developed in their overlapping section a 10-m deep topographic depression known as Mesquite Lake (Johnson and Hadley, 1976).

I ................. i ............... 5 ~ . . . 5 08 i sano. 4 TIME (see) 0 i .............. ,'/,, mO 2 o,~1 mn~l ............... i .............. 5m " Diluvial ' ~ sand] .... iI . . . . ~. 8 ~ ~:2 r m'/a rn0' Fig. 23. Time histories of excess pore water pressure ratio and effective stress paths (simulated results). of the ground due to P-wave almost coincides with that of the rigid body and little amplification of the vertical motion can be obtained. 1 • 106 kPa as the bulk modulus of the underground water.

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