By Randall R. Reeves

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Photo: Tethys Research Institute/Simone Panigada. , New Zealand’s Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal Sanctuary and Mexico’s Upper Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve) (IWC 2001c). Experience to date has shown that the success of a time/area closure strategy heavily depends on knowing a great deal about the dynamics of the fishery and about the biology and behavior of the species of concern. , harbor porpoise, Hector’s dolphin, or vaquita), they require intensive monitoring, education, and enforcement.

1997, 1999b, 2002) and the West Indies (Adams 1994). The following factors make the deliberate exploitation of cetaceans a high-risk endeavor from a conservation viewpoint: (a) intrinsically low rates of population increase are exhibited by most cetacean species; (b) most populations are also subject to bycatch in fisheries and other forms of incidental mortality; (c) much uncertainty is usually associated with estimates of life history parameters, absolute abundance, trends in abundance, and total mortality; (d) the effects of chemical and noise pollution, reduced prey abundance, and habitat degradation are potentially serious but difficult to quantify and account for; and (e) environmental stochasticity and catastrophic events are unavoidable.

Inevitably, the pronetwork of marine and freshwater protected areas falls far tection afforded by a sanctuary, park, or reserve stops at its short of what is needed. Few protected areas are approborders. , animals that are relatively protection to a cetacean population. In many cases, actisafe from entanglement in fishing gear while inside a revities harmful to cetaceans are permitted inside a protected serve may meet a gauntlet of nets as they move seasonally area (most notably, unselective or otherwise destructive beyond its borders).

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