By William O'Donohue

​The motivation for this quantity is easy. For a number of purposes, scientific psychologists have lengthy proven substantial curiosity within the philosophy of technological know-how. whilst logical positivism received foreign money within the Thirties, psychologists have been one of the so much avid readers of what those philosophers needed to say approximately technological know-how. a part of the critique of Skinner’s radical behaviorism and hence habit treatment was once that it trusted, and therefore used to be logically depending on, the reality of logical positivism—a declare decisively refuted either traditionally and logically through L.D. Smith (1986) in his very important Behaviorism and Logical Positivism: A Reassessment of the Alliance. ​

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We end our brief exposition of some of the major moves in epistemology and turn now to an explication of the first major account of science: logical positivism. These epistemological problems though serve as an important context and background for this discussion. Logical Positivism Historical Sketch Logical positivism began as a philosophical movement in the 1920s as a strong reaction to idealist metaphysics. Its geographical origins were both in Berlin (the Berlin circle) and in Vienna (the Vienna circle).

Note that this has the form of a deductive argument, its premises are all true, and the premises contain at least one scientific law: Boyle’s law. Thus, for Hempel, this is a successful example of a scientific explanation. 2. Inductive/statistical explanation. The second type of explanation is called inductive statistical explanation because the law in the premises is not a universal scientific law but rather a probabilistic law. Again, scientific explanation occurs, and individual events are subsumed under laws—but this time, the laws state probabilities instead of certainties.

It also seems that you are justified in believing p, because normally witnessing such evidence (someone exiting from a bar, slurred speech, abnormal gait, coordination problems, drinking from a brown paper bag, erratic driving) conjointly are excellent grounds for believing p. However, the Gettier counterexamples are designed to show that justified true belief are not sufficient conditions for knowledge. For example, the claim would be that you do not know p because your justification for knowing p is based on a false premise, namely that the man you saw is the drunk driver.

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