By Steven M. Bragg

Required interpreting for a person beginning, operating, or turning out to be a company, enterprise Ratios and formulation, moment version places solutions on the fingertips of industrial managers, with approximately 250 operational standards and transparent, easy-to-understand factors that may be used instantly. the second one variation contains nearly fifty new ratios and formulation, in addition to new chapters masking ratios and formulation for e-commerce and human assets.

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If so, the volume of accumulated depreciation listed in the balance sheet may appear to be quite high; this is evidence less of improper asset management and more of inadequate accounting for eliminated assets. FRINGE BENEFITS TO WAGES AND SALARIES EXPENSE Description: Apparently small changes in a company’s benefit policies can have a profound impact on the total benefits expense for a company. The best way to see the total impact of these changes is to calculate a ratio of fringe benefit costs to total wages and salaries.

Consequently, a company’s financing decisions have a great deal of influence over this ratio. SALES PER PERSON Description: This is one of the most closely watched of all performance mea- sures. It is based on the assumption that employees are at the core of a company’s profitability, and so high degrees of efficiency in this area are bound to result in strong profitability. It is also a standard benchmark in many industries. Formula: Divide revenue for a full year by the total number of full-time equiva- lents (FTEs) in the company.

Formula: Divide all discretionary costs by sales. Discretionary costs can include marketing, research and development, training, and repairs and maintenance costs, as well as any other costs that do not directly contribute to ongoing sales or production activities. Discretionary costs ———————— Sales Example: The management team of the Tony Twinkle Donut Company wants to make its company private. 11 Discretionary Costs Repairs and maintenance Marketing Training New product development Total $185,000 $486,000 $72,000 $340,000 $1,083,000 tionary costs.

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