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During times when the rectifier output is above battery voltage the battery is recharged. 9. The amount with which the output varies above and below the optimum is called the ripple voltage. Voltage regulation The voltage generated by an alternator increases as its rotational speed increases, and also as the strength of the excitation field current increases. At about 10,000 rev/min the open circuit voltage on full excitation current (2A) could be as high as 140 volts, which is far too high for an automotive system.

In practice an electromagnetic field system is used rather than a permanent magnet (b) Arrangement of output windings in a three phase alternator (c) Voltage curves over one revolution of rotating magnet. Connection of the windings results in a three phase alternating voltage 40 Automotive Electronic Systems output. 2(c). 3). e. 73:1). The output current amplitude however, equals the amplitude of any one phase current. Conversely, in the delta connection method the amplitude of the output voltage equals the ampli­ tude of any phase voltage but the output current is y/3 times one phase current.

From the stationary magnet in a linear direction. The most common type of stepper motors in Stepper motors automotive use have four phases giving five con­ In a stepper motor many field windings are nections, one common positive supply and four switched in rotation around a permanent negative returns. The electronic control unit magnet armature. The armature follows in small earths combination of the returns causing the rotor incremental steps. 5° (48 steps/rev) steps with up to ating principle of stepper motors, illustrated with some 150 combinations depending on the number mechanical switches to switch current to the field of revolutions made by the rotor.

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