By Anil Kapur

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Extra info for Airport Infrastructure: The Emerging Role of the Private Sector (World Bank Technical Paper)

Sample text

Manufacturing exports now represent over 50% of total exports in low-income developing countries, more than 60% in middle-income countries, and in excess of 90% in Asia's newly industrialized economies. The adequacy of infrastructure quantity and reliability is a key factor in the ability of countries to compete in international trade, even in traditional commodities. For example, infrastructure problems contribute to high shipping costs borne by the exporter. Thus, the competition for new exports and location of global industries largely depends on the quality of infrastructure.

For example, infrastructure problems contribute to high shipping costs borne by the exporter. Thus, the competition for new exports and location of global industries largely depends on the quality of infrastructure. 8 During the past two decades, increased globalization of world trade in many countries arose not only from the liberalization of trade policies but also from advances in communications, transportation, and storage technologies. About two-thirds of production and sales in OECD countries are processed directly to order, with "just-in-time" delivery of products becoming the norm in many sectors.

The cost increases to US$500 billion if the cost of upgraded air traffic control systems, environmental regulations, intermodal linkages, and unreported quality constraints are included. ix. Currently, only a limited number of airport facilities are being developed to meet the increase in air traffic demand mostly in East Asia (Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand). Existing airports in North and South America and Europe are being reconstructed and/or modernized. However, few primary airports are being constructed in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and South Asia, where existing infrastructure is among the oldest in use.

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