By P. Bernier, G. Bidan, S. Lefrant
This edited paintings includes 8 wide, review-type contributions by means of top scientists within the box of man-made metals. The authors have been invited by means of the organisers of the overseas convention on technology and expertise of artificial Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to study the development of analysis some time past twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sector and assesses the customers for destiny study.
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Some of the sulfonates act as dopant and form zwitter ions having delocalized positive charges, while the sulfonate anions not participating in the self-doping process are neutralized by alkalimetal ions. 7.
Stability, and the more sophisticated, but more demanding methods, leading to materials amenable to full structural elucidation. Aside from the question of structural defects, materials known as PPP most cases do not contain much more than, say, ten repeat units . This can be due to two reasons: (i) side reactions occur, that destroy functional groups and, thus, suppress further chain growth, or (ii) the product precipitates from solution . The latter limitation is by no means surprising in view of the low solubility of higher oligophenylenes (solubility of octaphenyl in toluene at 25~ less than 10 -8 g/L) , although kinetic hindrance of precipitation from solution cannot rigorously be excluded.
In particular, rod-coil block copolymers containing "rr-conjugated rigid rods represent attractive materials as they provide novel ways for probing the influence of the supramolecular order on the optoelectronic properties of the luminescent rods. In other words, the synthesis of luminescent rod-coil block copolymers is a new intrinsic approach to improve device performance and stability of the potential applications . Some prominent examples of 7r-conjugated block copolymers include poly(paraphenylene)-b-polystyrene (PPP-b-PS) 42 , poly(para-phenylenevinylene)b-poly(norbornene) 43 [86a], poly-(thiophene)-b-polystyrene 44  and poly(phenylquinoline)-b-polystyrene 45 .