By Olaus Johan Murie
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In this view, the lower ranks in the proto state not only benefited from the increases in absolute fitness due to the state's territorial ex pansion, but retained relative fitness with the higher ranks. Whatever the plausi bility of such accounts,39 they show that biopolitics has concerned itself with fa milial genetic interests in sophisticated ways. Ethnic genetic interests await treatment. 40 To this end, in the following chapter I describe the distribution of individuals' genetic interests in family, ethny and species, review and formulate strategies used or usable to defend them, and assess the ethical status of those strategies.
Directed altruism was one competitive strategy, with most intense investment going to the family, which is the highest concentration of distinctive genes apart from self. But the band and the encompassing tribe also received some investment in the form of food sharing, cooperative child care, and mutual exploitation and defence of ter ritory. Much of this was not altruistic, paying off due to reciprocity and the re sulting synergies that benefited the group as a whole. 11 But altruism played its part, especially in group defence and in contributing to the trust that facilitates delayed reciprocity.
Similarly, texts on human ecology can demonstrate fami liarity with modem evolutionary theory yet fail to raise questions about genetic fitness in discussing stratification and the state. In their broad ranging undergraduate text, Richerson et al. ( 1 996, p. 3 S 3 ) assert that inequality is a moral di lemma of complex societies, but do not discuss the inclusive fitness consequences of stratification or state fonnation, whether relative or absolute, individual or tribal. 37 2 . Concentrations o f Kinship: Family, Ethny, Humanity Summary Genetic interests arc in principle quantifiable, since they occur in individuals and groups with measurable concentrations.